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October 2015

Half term assignment- Interviewing.

I was asked to come up with three different questions that I would ask somebody in an interview. Within the five different scenarios I will becoming up with 3 different questions.

A singer in a new band which has just released a new EP.

  1. Who would you say are your greatest influences that influenced the sound of this EP?
  2. What was your personal favorite track to write and record?
  3. What is the main topic for this EP?

A manager of an animal rescue center which has had a surge of abandoned pets.

  1. What do you think could of caused such a sudden surge of abandoned pets?
  2. Is there any possible way for others to get involved and help with the surge that has happened?
  3. Do you expect to re home many of the pets, if so how will you do this successfully?

A headteacher of a school where 50% of the students have to resit GCSE English.

  1. How has the affected the image of your school?
  2. Has this become a concern for your future students, are parents worried?
  3. Why do you think this happened?

The mother of a teenage girl launching a fundraising campaign to pay for lifesaving cancer treatment in America.

  1. What do you think inspired your daughter to do this?
  2. How are you going to support her throughout the fundraising campaign?
  3. What will the campaign consist of?

The fire chief investigating a blaze which gutted a terraced house in Sheffield.

  1. Is there any further information on what could of started the fire?
  2. Were many people injured?
  3. How could you make people aware on how to avoid things like this in the future?
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Interviewing.

There is a way to a successful interview. There are also different types of interviews and hings you should do throughout interviews, this post will point out some of those things.

Why should you conduct an interview?

  • There is never enough research that you can do, and only a certain amount you can do, the next step would be an interview.
  • An experts opinion will really help with whatever it is you are researching etc.
  • A human side of the story. Someone would be able to tell you about their views and opinions etc.
  • You will be able to get challenging opinions, which will spark even more diversity if needed.
  • It helps to bring a story to life a lot, by using direct quotes.

How do you interview?

  • DETAIL- you have to start off with what happened.
  • OPINION- Get the interviewees opinion on the subject.
  • ACTION- What is it that is going to be done about it?

Different types of interviews. 

  • Face to face.

This can be time consuming but it is a good way to pick up on how the interviewee feels about the subject, you are able to read their body language when asking them questions, and when they answer them. When doing this it allows you to ask further questions and get more opinions.

  • Telephone

This way you have to make it clear who you are and not lie about your identity, for legal reasons. Although it isn’t illegal unless you pretend to be a police officer. This is another good way of interviewing but maybe a bit harder to really understand how the interviewee feels.

  • Email/Social media.

This is a very easy way to interview someone who is in a different country, Character limits will prove a problem so you must be very aware of that. Again, it will be a lot harder to understand the interviewees feelings by reading their body language, unless you do the interview over a video message.

Type of questions to ask during an interview. 

Don’t ask closed questions. This way the interview will last a lot longer and you will be able to gather more information. The time spent with the interviewee may also mean that they become more comfortable, resulting in them opening up more and giving even more opinions and complex answers.

Make sure you space your questions out well, take your time. If you ask too many questions in one go the interviewee will become confused and you will not get clear answers.

Make sure you don’t stick to a prepared list of questions. It is good to improvised based off how the interviewee has been reacting to the previous questions you had asked before.

You have to make sure you are constantly listening carefully to what they are saying, be interested and follow up on interesting things that they may say throughout the time you are interviewing them.

What to do when you meet the person you are interviewing. 

You will need to introduce yourself and shake their hand, this will instantly create a good impression and hopefully make them feel comfortable.

Be friendly and polite, whilst keeping a professional manor.

Always be prepared to deal with anything that comes your way.

Managing an interview. 

You will have to ask the questions that you know your audience that you are dealing with will want to know about. This way the interview will be a success either way.

Never be afraid to ask someone to repeat what they have just said if you didn’t hear it, just be polite and they should and most likely will be happy to repeat.

Be sensitive to the situation you are in but also do not be afraid to ask difficult questions, if it is appropriate and lead off from there.

How to deal with somebody difficult. 

No matter what, never lose your temper, it is important to retain a professional image and maturity.

Try to keep the conversation going, but if you really feel it cant go any further, wrap it up and than them for their time. Never failing to keep polite.

What to do when you think an interview is drying up. 

Make sure not to panic, just keep going and talk in general terms if needed, just until you feel you are back on track with the interview.

Remember you always have your previous questions to refer back to.

How to bring an interview to an end.

If the interview is live you can say that is all you have time and thank the interviewee for their time. Remember to politely bring the conversations to an end.

Why should you research before an interview?

It will enable you with a good start to an interview. This would mean their is no awkward starts and pauses. This will also help your professional look as you look fully prepared.

Research plays a big part in the relevance of the questions that you ask. It will make your article more interesting as your questions are more relevant.  It will also provide the article with background material,

Research will mean that you are fully prepared, this will also help the interviewee feel at ease and comfortable with you because it means that everything is in control and there shouldn’t be any mistakes. This possibly leading to more in depth answers.

Things that could go wrong in an interview.

You could give off an unprofessional vibe.

The interviewee may have to repeat information that is already known by the public, they may also feel uncomfortable.

You may miss out on something important that you needed to cover, she/he may also refuse to be interviewed.

If i was to interview Bobby Morley and/ or 5 seconds of summer i would take all these pints into account in order to have a successful interview. My research is below.

http://www.pearltrees.com/akersabigail

4.1 .1, 4.1.2 Media effects debate – film censorship.

The class had a debate on film censorship, split into two sides, for and against. We were then set to research about the topic. The points made are listed below:

For

  • Children will be less violent throughout growing up if they cant buy/use the game.
  • Because we cant always watch over what children watch or decide what could possibly trigger or inspire violent behavior, the censorship will provide protection and protect the vulnerability of children.
  • If i film is censored it is less likely that violent scenes are able to disturb children.
  • If more and more films are violent, the audience will become desensitized to it, therefore resulting in children thinking it is normal.
  • Because age ratings give warning on how violent a film will be, the parents of children will be able to decide if their child could watch it or not.

Against

  • It is the parents decision on weather it is ok for their child to watch it or not.
  • Censorship will not completely stop people from watching the film, it will still be easy to find online and watch without the censorship.
  • If a film is violent, it doesn’t necessarily mean it will influence violent behavior.
  • We should be able to decide what we watch ourselves, later suffering the consequences ourselves if there is any negative affect.
  • Not only is there violence in films meant for older people, there is in 12a and PG films too, which means children will be exposed to the violence in those films, which theaters have said is ok for them to watch.

4.1.1, 4.1.2 Media Effects debate

There are various different theories on how the audience receives the media and how it effects them.

These theories are:

Hypodermic needle theory. 

This is where passive audiences are ‘injected’ with ideologies, beliefs, messages, values etc. This meaning that our behavior is easily and directly shaped by these media messages. This is often found in young children as they take the media and believe everything that it says, because they know no different.

Advantages: Important messages will be received easily and believed.

Disadvantages: Somebody may believe this and try to live up to it, maybe putting themselves into danger.

The two step flow. 

This assumes a more active audience, who will discuss the media text with each other. This doesn’t completely assume that we are fully active, as we can still be passive. It proposes that we are influenced by “opinion leaders” for example; doctors, parents, experts etc.

It basically means that we take the media product, decode it then talk about it with an opinion leader if it worries us.

Advantages: This means that what we do will not be completely shaped by the media, we will have out own opinion enough to question it but important points will be gotten across by the media.

Disadvantages: Not being able to find an opinion leader, or not going to one and believing something extreme that may not actually be that extreme.

Cultivation theory. 

This is the repeated exposure to a media message which means it will lead to “desensitisation” this meaning the audience will become less sensitive to it the more that they see it.

Advantages: The effect the media has on us would not be as great, possibly not scaring us as much as it could if we wasn’t used to seeing certain things.

Disadvantages: We will not be as affected by extreme events than we should be, which could take the seriousness away from it.

Uses and gratifications theory. 

This looks at why the audience use the media. It assumes that the audience are active consumers, not passive. It has found that the audience have a variety of needs that they gratify through media. These are:

Diversion. This is where the audience use the media in order to distract themselves and keep their minds off of something. For example, if someone had a big day coming up, they would often put on a film in order to take their mind off the event happening tomorrow for a couple of hours.

Personal identity. This is where people find themselves through the media. It is a form of comfort. For example, if someone was to watch a film, they might find themselves relating to a certain character of maybe aspire to be like that person. This helps with their personal identity.

Personal relationships. This is where somebody uses the media to form personal relationships. For example if they had recently started at a new school, college or job they will want to make new friends and be able to hold a conversation with those people. This is where the media comes in because if they watch a popular programme at home, the next day they will have something to talk about with those people, finding a common interest.

Surveillance. This is where the audience is aware of the world around them. For example, watching the news or reading the news from a newspaper.

Advantages: The media can be used as comfort and help us in some things that we do.

Disadvantages: We may become completely shaped by the media, and not oppose to it as we sometimes should.

The reception theory. 

This is where the audience do not passively accept media text.

Hall proposed three different audience readings;

  1.  Dominant reading. This means that the media text is interpreted in the way intended by the producer.
  2. Negotiated reading. This means that the audience accepts some of the media but not all of it.
  3. Oppositional reading. This is where the audience is in conflict with the media text message.

The audiences readings on media text depends on:

  • Gender. (male/female)
  • Situated culture (background, upbringing, culture etc)
  • Age.
  • Experience and knowledge

Advantages: accommodates for different types of readings, not everybody will have the same opinion.

Disadvantages: There is only three clear different readings.

Top 10 most annoying people at concerts.

Going to concerts, you always have to deal with a lot of people around you that you would rather just not be there. People don’t exactly treat the place the way it should be treated and enjoyed like it should, here is a list of the top 10 most annoying people at concerts.

The person that has a sign, that happens to be right in front of your face.

I’d love for the artist/band to see your sign and read whatever it is you want to say, but your sign is in front of my face and I cant see. Please put it away. 

The person that has a selfie stick. 

Why have these even become a concert essential? You could hit someone in the face with that thing. 

The person that watches the show through their phone screen.

I get it. I do, you want to take as many photos and videos as you can in order to show them off to your friends and post them all over social media. But do you really need hundreds that you’re probably never going to look at? You don’t even look like you’re enjoying the show when you’re doing this. There’s always professional photographers at every show anyway, yours probably don’t even matter. 

The one who tries pushing themselves to the front, in the standing pit. 

If somebody is at the front at the start of the concert, they earned their spot. They got there early in order to be at the front, they might of even camped out. So when you are trying to push your way to the front, you’re just annoying the people around you. Accept that you got there a little too late to be at the front and enjoy the show. 

The one that complains about everything. 

This usually occurs at standing shows. They’ll complain about every little thing. If you’re not prepared to get pushed, have your feet stood on, your legs to ache and to be pushed into other people, please don’t buy standing tickets. Someone would gladly be in your position right now, believe it or not. 

The one who constantly shouts out requests. 

Look, I hope that the artist/band will play my favorite song too, but its not our choice. The setlist is already planned and you didn’t get an input, neither did anyone. So stop screaming in my ear for a song that will not be played. Enjoy the show as it is. 

The one who screams at every little thing.

These people will scream at the camera man on stage before the actual concert starts, even if they don’t know who he is. Please be quiet, you get us excited and ready for no reason. Save it for the concert. 

The one who constantly checks and updates all their social media. 

You paid good money to be here. Whats so important on your phone that cant wait? Put it away, enjoy the show and live in the moment. Please just turn it off, its very distracting for the people around you. 

The one who doesnt stand up, totally killing the vibe.

Nobody can completely agree on when to stand up and when to sit dodown. But, when you are sat down when everyone else is stood up, you’re kind of killing the vibe. You do you but standing up to enjoy the concert with everyone else is really fun.

The one who spills their beer all over you.

Im glad you’re having a good time and all but, you just spilled your beer all over me and its not a good look. Please be careful with that cup. Carry on dancing. 

ISO

This is how sensitive the sensor is inside your camera.

If there is a high ISO the image will appear grainy and will loose some quality. This is because it increases the sensitivity to the sensor inside the camera.

if the ISO is low, the less sensitive the sensor is to light.

ISO-200-and-ISO-3200

images

Continue reading “ISO”

4.2.1, 4.2.2 Media regulation-The Editors code.

The editors code is a internal media regulation. It is not a law but is a code of conduct which was created by the journalism industry itself. If you were to breach the code it would result in a fine, suspension, dismissal, being ‘black listed’ but not arrested. If the something is in the public interest, the code may be breached. It focuses on Journalism ethics, the rights and wrongs, dos and don’ts.

The editors code covers 16 areas, 8 of which have public interest exceptions. These are:

  • Privacy
  • Harassment
  • Children
  • Children in sex cases
  • Hospitals
  • Reporting crime
  • Clandestine devices and subterfuge
  • Payment to criminals.

Privacy. 

Everybody is entitled to their own private family life, home, health, and correspondence including digital communication. This means that it is unacceptable to photograph somebody in a private place without consent. A private place could be public or not. This can be breached if it is in the publics best interest.

The internet has brought in a whole new dimension to this, this is because once an image is released online it will spread quickly and will be very hard to get back or delete.

An example of a celebrity that has sued for breaching the editors code,an invasion of privacy is Bradley Cooper.

“Bradley Cooper is the latest celebrity to sue the French gossip magazine Oops. In court documents obtained once again by Gossip Cop, the actor is suing for invasion of privacy since the tabloid wrote about his love life with Irina Shayk.” – http://www.gossipcop.com/bradley-cooper-suing-french-magazine-oops-lawsuit-irina-shayk-invasion-of-privacy/

4.2.1, 4.2.2 Media Regulation- Contempt of court.

Contempt of court is a state law in external media regulation. It is the interfering with justice of prejudice a person getting a fair trail. Contempt of court is more at risk when a crime is ‘active’ and less when a crime stops being ‘active’ although, a crime only stops being active when someone is released, after 12 months or the case is thrown out of court. You are also at risk of contempt of court if you write something which creates a ‘substantial risk of serious prejudice’.

Making a suspect look bad in the public eye is a contempt of court. You must make sure not to give descriptions or publish pictures if identity is an issue. You must also not use words like ‘offender’ or ‘thug’ as they all imply guilt.

It is ok to use common ground facts in the public domain, for example career, history, family, hobbies etc.

The newspapers below are an example of contempt of court.

yrio tfi

Both of these covers include images and the name of the alleged, this would be a breach of contempt of court if identity was an issue. They also imply that the alleged spied on a flat couple and was also to blame for the murder. This making him look bad in the public eye and making him seem guilty, without any actual evidence.

Both of these newspapers were later fined for the breach of contempt of court. The Daily mirror, £50.000 and The sun,£18,000.

4.2.1, 4.2.2 Media Regulation

Media regulation is the control or guidance in the media. It consists of rules and procedures in which are set out by the governing body. There are two types of media regulation, external and internal.

External.

This is the laws set by the government. Things like; contempt of court, Deformation law and obscene publication act.

Internal.

This is the codes and conducts set by national organisations linked to a range of media industries. The following media industries are linked to this; ASA, bbfc and Ofcom.

Defamation Law.

The defamation law is something published which causes serious harm to a persons reputation under this law, a person can sue for any damage. The person must always be identified, not always by name. This can lower the person in the minds of right thinking members of society, can injure their job reputation and exposes them to hate and ridicule as well as causing them to be stunned or avoided.

Defenses

Journalists can print defamatory comments if they can prove a legal defense.

Defense 1- Truth. This means if a statement is true and you can prove it, you can print it. However, you have to back this up with evidence, something like recordings or notebooks.

Defense 2- Privilege. This is circumstances when law says there should be complete freedom of speech. A reporter can write exactly what is said, even if it is defamatory, providing it is fair and accurate. This is usually used in court cases, inquests and council meetings.

Defense 3- Honest opinion. This means a reporter can make a defamatory comment as long as it is in public best interest.

  • Something within the publics best interest.
  • Something based on privilege occasion.
  • Something based on true facts you can prove.
  • Something which is your honest held opinion.

TASK

Consider the following scenario:

Prince Harry has been photographed at a party where police were called after reports of illegal drug abuse.

You are an Editor working on the CBBC news programme ‘Newsround’ , and you have to decide how to cover the story on the programme. How would Defamation Law and the Ofcom Broadcasting code affect how you cover this story?

In Section One: Protecting the Under-Eighteens, according to Ofcom “The use of illegal drugs, the abuse of drugs, smoking, solvent abuse and the misuse of alcohol:

must not be featured in programmes made primarily for children unless there is strong editorial justification” (2015).

1.10  “must generally be avoided and in any case must not be condoned, encouraged or glamorised in other programmes broadcast before the watershed (in the case of television), or when children are particularly likely to be listening (in the case of radio), unless there is editorial justification; • must not be condoned, encouraged or glamorised in other programmes likely to be widely seen or heard by under-eighteens unless there is editorial justification. Violence and dangerous behavior”

This type of story would not normally appear on a childrens news show but there is justification for it to be featured, this because of the public interest and that the public need to be aware.

If I was to broadcast this story on a children news show I would have to find out if there is any further confirmation as to weather prince Harry was there or not. I would need to know if it was all facts or just rumors because if it was just rumors I would be violating the defarmation act. I would not include any graphics because it wouldn’t be suitable for children to see. I would also make sure there was strong education on what drugs can do and make sure that the children know how badly it can affect someone and their way of life. I would have to make sure that the story was not glamorized because the children would be influenced by this, especially because it is a member of the royal family.

If this story was true and i had evidence of that and I decided to run this story, I would make my reporters go out and interview people that were at the party, this confirming the story further and making it a lot more trust worthy and believable.

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